Lexical semantics

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Lexical Semantics and Classification
– Lexical semantics is the study of word meanings and examines how words structure their meaning.
– It focuses on the relationships between different senses and uses of a word.
– Lexical units, including words, affixes, compound words, and phrases, are analyzed.
– The meaning of lexical units correlates with the structure of language or syntax.
– Lexical items can be classified based on their derived meanings or surrounding environment.
– They participate in regular patterns of association with each other.
– Relations between lexical items include hyponymy, hypernymy, synonymy, antonymy, and homonymy.
– Lexical units can be independent (free morphemes) or require association with other units (bound morphemes).

Hyponymy, Hypernymy, Synonymy, Antonymy, and Homonymy
– Hyponymy and hypernymy describe the relationship between a general term (hypernym) and more specific terms (hyponyms).
– Taxonomy is used to describe hyponyms and hypernyms.
– Synonyms are words with different pronunciation and spelling but the same meaning.
– Antonyms are words with opposite meanings and can be graded, complementary, or relational.
– Homonymy refers to words with the same spelling or pronunciation but different meanings.
– Examples of antonyms and homonyms are provided.

Polysemy, Semantic Networks, and Semantic Fields
– Polysemy refers to words having two or more related meanings.
– Lexical semantics explores how the meaning of a lexical unit is established through its neighborhood in a semantic net.
– WordNet is an example of a semantic network in English, grouping words into synsets and showing relations like meronymy, hyponymy, synonymy, and antonymy.
– Semantic field theory categorizes a group of words with interrelated meanings under a larger conceptual domain.
– Semantic field theory asserts that lexical meaning is best understood by looking at a group of semantically related words.
– The extent of semantic relations between lexemes is a subject of debate.

Mapping of Lexical Items onto Concepts and Events
– Semantic field theory proposes that words can be categorized under larger conceptual domains.
– Examples of words falling under the semantic category of cooking are provided.
– Event structure defines the semantic relation of a verb and its syntactic properties.
– Verbs can belong to states, processes, or transitions.
– Different examples of verb phrases in different states, transitions, and processes are given.

Lexicalist Theory and Micro-syntactic Theories
– Lexicalist theory views transformation as independent of morphology and argues that each morpheme contributes specific meaning.
– Micro-syntactic theories, such as Chomsky’s minimalist framework, focus on the syntax-lexical semantics interface.
– Different theories and hypotheses, such as the Argument Structure Hypothesis and Verb Phrase Hypothesis, are discussed.
– The work of Hale & Keyser, Halle & Marantz, and Ramchand in the field of micro-syntactic theories is mentioned. References: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lexical_semantics

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Lexical semantics