Global Network Navigator

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History and Operations of GNN
– GNN was published in September 1992 by OReilly & Associates.
– GNN introduced enhanced HTML features such as formatting, graphics, scripting, and embedded applets.
– GNN was officially launched in August 1993 at Interop in San Francisco.
– GNN was one of the pioneers of online advertising.
– GNN received awards for Best Commercial Site and Best Document Design.
– Dale Dougherty held the title of publisher for GNN.
– Jennifer Niederst was GNN’s Art Director.
– Public relations for GNN was handled by Niehaus Ryan Haller.
– GNN’s website was hosted at NEARNET, a project of Bolt Beranek and Newman (BBN).
– GNNDirect provided an online way for individuals to make donations to the victims of the Kobe earthquake in Japan.
– GNN had five parts: GNN News, GNN Magazine, The Online Whole Internet Catalog, The GNN Marketplace, and Navigators Forum.
– The Online Whole Internet Catalog was a forerunner of internet directory services like Yahoo!.
– GNN offered unique content in six categories: personal finance, sports, education, travel, Story Cafe, and Web Review.
– GNN had a web directory.
– GNNDirect sold products and provided a platform for donations.

GNN as an ISP
– America Online (AOL) bought GNN from OReilly & Associates in 1995.
– AOL paid $11 million in stock and cash for GNN.
– Lisa Gansky became vice president and general manager of GNN programming after the sale.
– GNN became an Internet service provider (ISP) under AOL.
– GNN offered original content in six categories and had 200,000 subscribers.

AOL’s acquisition and closure of GNN
– AOL offered a flat-rate pricing plan for unlimited monthly access to both the Internet and AOL’s private network.
– GNN was the fifth-largest ISP in the U.S. with 200,000 subscribers.
– AOL closed the Berkeley office of GNN and laid off about 60 people.
– AOL did not build a competitive web directory with GNN, allowing the success of Yahoo!.
– AOL took a charge of up to $75 million to reorganize and shut down GNN.

Awards, Recognition, and Media Coverage
– CERN’s Access magazine awarded Global Network Navigator (GNN) in Fall 1994.
– GNN received the Best O The Net award from Global Network Navigator in June 1994.
– GNN was recognized by Mortgage Banking in November 1994.
– GNN was featured in the U.C. Berkeley SIMS IS-290 course, Electronic Publishing in Fall 1998.
– Time magazine mentioned the ‘Battle For The Soul Of The Internet’ in July 1994.
– The New York Times published an article about companies setting up shop in cyberspace in November 1994.
– The New York Times reported that GNN added another portal to the internet in June 1995.
– The San Francisco Chronicle mentioned AOL’s plans to absorb GNN in November 1996.
– The New York Times discussed the growth of the internet market and secure systems in 1995.
– The NY Daily News reported on hostels going online in May 1995.

Partnerships, Collaborations, Events, and Business Developments
– The American Red Cross and GNN established an online donation system for victims of the Kobe Earthquake in January 1995.
– GNN collaborated with Free Online Library to issue a press release about the online donation system.
– GNN partnered with Forbes to publish an article about Kindle in February 2009.
– AOL announced its acquisition of GNN in June 1995.
– GNN collaborated with PR Newswire for Take Our Daughters to Work Day in April 1996.
– GNN organized the second annual Best of the Net awards in November 1995.
– Esther Dyson was chosen as the Netizen of the Year at the Best of the Net awards.
– GNN hosted a gala event to present the twenty awards at the Best of the Net awards.
– GNN celebrated the diversity and character of the global Internet community at the Best of the Net awards.
– GNN attempted to appeal to a younger audience with a new show in July 1996.
– AOL made changes to its pricing and executive team in response to market shifts in October 1995.
– AOL planned a $385 million charge related to an accounting change in October 1996.
– The Wall Street Journal published an article about AOL Time Warner in December 2000.
– AOL made workforce cuts in November 1996.
Facebook and LinkedIn were compared to previous tech giants in terms of IPO readiness in January 2011.Summary:   https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Global_Network_Navigator

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